Globalizing World: [The Tensions]

Hi  there! Today is super awesome ’cause finally I have a spare time to posting again. YAAAAYY!! I remember that I’ve read an interesting book by James N. Rosenau which discuss about “Globalization” in International Politics.

asri putriningrum

Seriously, Life in modern age has undergone many changes both positive and negative. Nowadays, the lack of security and fear continue to increase because of the many global issues that occur in this earth. Actually, many concerns arise due to increasing crime rates and insecurity has become one of the global agenda in the collectivity and the state.  In this stage, the safety notice is very concerned and expanded, both in terms of military and strategic considerations to dispel or minimize public anxiety, uncertain economy and often shaky and fragile government.

Oh well.. This era such a huge resurrection after the world war II ended and the technology is highly developed and also very advanced. isn’t it?.. for example in the presence of transportation such as cars, boats, and planes, which accommodate people to reach distant places to interact internationally. Coupled with the phone and the internet, so a communication becomes easier, as the technology advances can narrow space, distance and time. Thanks God, I’m feeling blessed living in modern age. LOL 

I think globalization making the ease of human life. Globalization influence on almost all aspects of society and most societies accept globalization. It is indirectly unify the country without limits due to the advances in information technology, communications, and transportation. Globalization is also provide huge effects on the economy. Economic globalization is a process of economic and trade activities. The globalization of the economy requires the removal of all restrictions and barriers to the flow of capital, goods and services.

For example is the existence of free trade, the trading both indivudual between countries and companies that are free of obstacles such as government export taxes and import of goods. To help managing the trades people need organizations which usually manage the split based on a regional free trade, such as AFTA, ANZCERTA, EFTA, APEC, etc.. that aims to create lower trade tariffs.

We can see that more foreign investors such as Japan, currently invest and set up factories in Indonesia. Indirectly, the factories provides jobs for the labours in Indonesia, but in fact there is also the possibility that the large foreign companies developed to increase investment in other countries and certainly has possibility become a capitalist. duuh 😦

World countries are divided? WHY? WHY?? WHY?…..

After reading some International Politics books and got so many abundant of political science, I’ve been thinking that the classification is the result of world interactions. Globalization brings an impact on increasing international interaction and forms of interaction, and to maintain it, regulation and classification (Regionalism) become indispensable. Despite the lack of regulation is felt increasingly faint state sovereignty and weakening the role of the state, but in this condition, with the setting, the individual can be more of a role and serve as a world community.

Yes! I have similar opinion and totally agree. In the “Ominous Tensions in A Globalizing World” I think James N. Rosenau saw globalization as something that has a lot of advantages for international relations. But not only that, he also argued that globalization can cause concern because it can lead to a complex problem that can lead to insecurity. So that the necessary arrangements and groupings in order to determine whether the nature of international relations or conflictual cooperation. And the development of the world causing  dynamics in international relations.

Rosenau arguments about globalization is also supported by a book that I found, written by Ian Clark in his book entitled “Globalization and International Relations Theory“. According to Clark’s opinion, globalization is defined more generally and rises issue of international relations theory. There are ideational and material. Globalization is driven by the strength of the material (technology, communication, or economic system) and give influence on human understanding of these changes. [“Globalization and International Relations Theory”. Ian Clark. 1999. Oxford publisher: USA. pg. 48]

Other supporting material is a book titled “Globalization” by Malcolm Waters. He argues that globalization is a social process that is characterized by shrinking the constraints of geography on social setting – where the culture and eventually people are becoming increasingly aware that they are getting closer. [“Globalization”. Malcolm Waters. 1995. Routledge: London and USA. pg. 3]

So, are you ready for the next effect of globalization in our life??

♥ Thanks for reading my post. Free to share and put your comment bellow

Advertisements

Quote of The Day: [Globalization]

globalization

 

 

Globalization – Kofi Annan

Indonesia dalam ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) 2015

Hello, ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) 2015! It’s Indonesia. How do ye? *LOL 😀

asean

ASEAN- source: google images

    Sebelum membahas mengenai Indonesia di dalam AEC 2015, yup!! alangkah baiknya bila kita mengetahui apa itu AEC 2015?..

   Sejak awal pembentukannya, ASEAN secara intensif menyepakati berbagai kesepakatan dalam bidang ekonomi. Diawali dengan kesepakatan Preferential Tariff Arrangement (PTA) pada tahun 1977. Kesepakatan yang cukup menonjol dan menjadi cikal bakal visi pembentukan ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) pada tahun 2015 adalah disepakatinya Common Effective Preferential TariffASEAN Free Trade Area (CEPT-AFTA) pada tahun 1992 dengan target implementasi semula tahun 2008, kemudian dipercepat menjadi tahun 2003 dan 2002 untuk ASEAN-6. [1]

   Pada tahun 2003, pemimpin-pemimpin dari negara yang menjadi anggota ASEAN (Association of South East Asian Nations) mencapai kesepakatan untuk membentuk sebuah komunitas yang disebut AEC (ASEAN Economic Community) yang juga biasa disebut “Masyarakat Ekonomi ASEAN”. Pada tahun 2007, mereka memastikan komitmen mereka tersebut dengan memutuskan untuk mempercepat penciptaan AEC pada tahun 2015. Alasan yang melatar belakangi pembentukan AEC ini adalah untuk menciptakan pembangunan ekonomi yang setara antara anggota ASEAN dan untuk membuat ASEAN menjadi sebuah kawasan ekonomi yang akan sepenuhnya terintegrasi kedalam ekonomi global.

   AEC (ASEAN Economic Community) merupakan sebuah usaha integrasi kawasan melalui ekonomi untuk menciptakan pasar tunggal yang berkaitan dengan perdagangan meliputi barang dan jasa secara bebas, termasuk manusia sepenuhnya bebas bergerak dan setiap Negara anggota ASEAN bebas untuk mengekspor barang dan jasa serta modal (investasi) ke Negara-negara anggota ASEAN lainnya. AEC merupakan realisasi dari tujuan akhir dari integrasi ekonomi sebagaimana yang dianut di the Vision tahun 2020, yang didasarkan pada konvergensi kepentingan Negara Anggota ASEAN untuk memperdalam dan memperluas integrasi ekonomi melalui inisiatif yang ada dan baru dengan batas waktu yang jelas.[2]

ASEAN MAP - Source: google images

ASEAN MAP – Source: google images

   Ohh Well, Setelah berbicara mengenai AEC 2015 tentu kita akan berfikir bagaimana dengan keadaan Indonesia yang merupakan salah satu anggota ASEAN. apakah Indonesia siap untuk menyambut kehadiran AEC 2015? Dari sisi potensi ekonomi, Indonesia adalah negara berkembang yang merupakan salah satu kekuatan ekonomi ASEAN Selain itu, potensi tersebut juga didukung oleh faktor sumber daya alam, pertumbuhan konsumsi swasta, dan potensi iklim investasi yang makin berkembang.

   Terciptanya AEC 2015 membuka PELUANG bagi Indonesia yang seharusnya dimanfaatkan untuk mencapai kesejahteraan.Kesediaan Indonesia bersama sama dengan 9 Negara ASEAN lainnya membentuk ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) pada tahun 2015 tentu saja didasarkan pada keyakinan atas manfaatnya yang secara konseptual akan meningkat kan pertumbuhan ekonomi Indonesia dan kawasan ASEAN. Integrasi ekonomi dalam mewujudkan AEC 2015 melalui pembukaan dan pembentukan pasar yang lebih besar, dorongan peningkatan efisiensi dan daya saing, serta pembukaan peluang penyerapan tenaga kerja di kawasan ASEAN, akan meningkatkan kesejahteraan seluruh negara di kawasan. Peluang lain yang seharusnya dapat dimanfaatkan adalah ASEAN merupakan pasar potensial dunia, negara-negara di kawasan ASEAN dikenal sebagai negara pengekspor, ASEAN merupakan negara tujuan investor, memiliki daya saing, ASEAN memiliki sektor jasa yang terbuka.

  Adapula TANTANGAN yang harus dihadapi oleh indonesia, seperti laju peningkatan ekspor dan impor yang semakin dinamis, laju inflasi yang dapat mengganggu stabilitas ekonomi makro Indonesia, dampak negatif dari arus modal yang lebih bebas, kesamaan produk, daya saing sektor prioritas integrasi, daya saing SDM, dan kepentingan nasional negara lain, serta kedaulatan negara Indonesia yang semakin sedikit karena bergabung dengan suatu organisasi integrasi kawasan. [3]

   Sesungguhnya dalam implementasi AEC 2015 jika Indonesia mampu memanfaatkannya, perekonomian Indonesia akan mencapai tingkat keberhasilan, dimana Indonesia sebagai bangsa besar yang berpengaruh dan dihormati dunia, khususnya ASEAN, karena mampu memanfaatkan peluang dalam AEC 2015. Artinya, dengan penerapan AEC 2015, terbuka pasar yang lebih luas bagi pengusaha Indonesia.Namun yang dikhawatirkan adalah jika Indonesia tidak mampu bersaing maka Indonesia akan terus menjadi korban liberalisasi pasar. Selain itu, perekonomian Indonesia akan hancur, Indonesia hanya dimanfaatkan sebagai pasar bagi berbagai komoditas barang dan jasa negara-negara ASEAN. Kalau saja pengusaha-pengusaha Indonesia bisa bersaing dengan pengusaha ASEAN, masih ada kemungkinan untuk melakukan ekspansi ke negara lain.

   Sayangnya baru sedikit dari perusahaan Indonesia yang memiliki kemampuan untuk menembus pasar regional dan internasional. Justru yang terjadi sebaliknya. Di pasar dalam negeri sendiri pun produsen nasional kalah bersaing dengan barang dan jasa impor. Hal itu patut disayangkan karena sebelum merambah pasar regional, produsen nasional sebaiknya mendominasi pasar dalam negeri terlebih dahulu. Apalagi mengingat ukuran pasar Indonesia yang begitu besar, setiap produsen nasional memiliki kesempatan untuk mencapai skala ekonomis yang cukup besar sehingga menurunkan ongkos produksi secara signifikan.

AEC - google images

AEC – google images

   Untuk mendukung Indonesia dapat bertahan dalam kerasnya persaingan AEC 2015, pemerintah Indonesia harus segera menyusun langkah strategis yang dapat di implementasikan secara spesifik agar peluang pasar yang terbuka dapat dimanfaatkan secara optimal. Langkah strategis tersebut disusun secara terpadu diantara dua sektor, mulai dari hulu hingga ke hilir dibawah koordinasi suatu Badan Khusus atau Kementerian Koordinator Bidang Perekonomian. Langkah-langkah strategis setiap sektor kemudian dijabarkan kedalam tindakan-tindakan yang mengarah pada upaya perbaikan dan pengembangan infrastruktur fisik dan non-fisik di setiap sektor dalam rangka meningkatkan efisiensi dan mendorong kinerja ekspor harus dilakukan secara terkoordinasi dengan seluruh sektor pembina dan pelaku usaha.

   Langkah-langkah strategis setiap sektor kemudian dijabarkan kedalam tindakan-tindakan yang mengarah pada upaya perbaikan dan pengem bangan infrastruktur fisik dan non fisik di setiap sektor dan linie dalam rangka meningkatkan efisiensi dan mendorong kinerja ekspor harus dilakukan secara terkoordinasi dengan seluruh sektor Pembina dan pelaku usaha

Secara garis besar, langkah strategis yang harus dilakukan antara lain adalah melakukan:

Penyesuaian, persiapan dan perbaikan regulasi baik secara kolektif maupun individual (reformasi regulasi);

Peningkatan kualitas sumber daya manusia baik dalam birokrasi maupun dunia usaha ataupun professional;

Penguatan posisi usaha skala menegah, kecil, dan usaha pada umumnya;

Penguatan kemitraan antara publik dan sektor swasta;

Menciptakan iklim usaha yang kondusif dan mengurangi ekonomi biaya tinggi

Pengembangan sektor-sektor prioritas yang berdampak luas dan komoditi unggulan;

Peningkatan partisipasi institusi pemerintah maupun swasta untuk mengimplementasikan AEC Blueprint

Reformasi kelembagaan dan kepemerintahan. Pada hakekatnya AEC Blue print juga merupakan program reformasi bersama yang dapat dijadikan referensi bagi reformasi di Negara Anggota ASEAN termasuk Indonesia;

Penyediaan kelembagaan dan permodalan yang mudah diakses oleh pelaku usaha dari berbagai skala;

Perbaikan infrastruktur fisik melalui pembangunan atau perbaikan infrastruktur seperti transportasi, telekomunikasi, jaln tol, pelabuhan, revitalisasi dan restrukturisasi industri, dan lain-lain. [4]

   Namun tidak hanya pemerintah saja yang dapat memberikan peran. Sebagai masyarakat Indonesia, sebenarnya kita juga dapat memberikan kontribusi terhadap bangsa ini agar dapat bersaing dalam AEC 2015. Beberapa hal yang dapat dilakukan adalah menyadari bahwa pendidikan itu merupakan hal yang penting agar tercipta SDM yang berkualitas (memiliki daya saing), selain itu mengikuti pelatihan dalam menciptakan home industry juga sangat berguna, dan yang terpenting adalah menumbuhkan dan meningkatkan jiwa “Entrepreneur” agar kita bisa ikut terlibat dalam persaingan pasar bebas yang semakin kejam.

*Bibliography:

[1] Departemen Perdagangan Republik Indonesia (2008), Jakarta: menuju ASEAN Economic

[2] ASEAN (2008), ASEAN Blue Print, Jakarta: ASEAN Secretariat

[3] KEMENDAG, Menuju ASEAN Economic Community 2015 [http://ditjenkpi.kemendag.go.id/website_kpi/Umum/Setditjen/Buku%20Menuju%20ASEAN%20ECONOMIC%20COMMUNITY%202015.pdf]

[4] ibid

 

Conserve Water Today For Tomorrow and Beyond!

In Indonesia, we are lucky to have easy access to get clean water just by turning on the tap. We wake up in the morning, take a shower, brush our teeth, grab a cup of coffee and head out for the day. Water also plays a big role in our local communities. Without water there would be no local business or industry. Fire fighting, municipal parks, and public swimming pools all need lots of water. An array of pipes, canals, and pumping stations managed by our public water systems are needed to bring a reliable supply of water to our taps each day.

Where does all this water come from? It starts out as rain or snow and flows into our local lakes, rivers and streams or into underground aquifers. You can learn more about water in many sources, including how it is being protected and where drinking water comes from. As we all know, water is an important part of our daily lives and we use it for a wide variety of purposes, but do people really understand how much they use?..

In some places water become really precious thing for them, for example:

                  In Africa

water crisis in Africa

water crisis in Africa

He needs clean water

He needs clean water

Africa faces huge challenges with multiple issues that adversely affect public health. One major challenge is the ability for both rural and urban Africans to access a clean water supply. There are limited sources of water available to provide clean drinking water to the entire population of Africa. Surface water sources are often highly polluted, and infrastructure to pipe water from fresh, clean sources to arid areas is too costly of an endeavor. Groundwater is the best resource to tap to provide clean water to the majority of areas in Africa, especially rural Africa, and groundwater has the benefit of being naturally protected from bacterial contamination and is a reliable source during droughts.

What do you think about that? It’s a really different condition with us. We use and spent water easily without thinking about how precious a drop of clean water in Africa. I personally think that we have to change our bad habit of water using. We can do simple acts in daily life to saving water, such as:

  1. Take shower shorter, shower about 5 minutes maximum
  2. Turn off tap while brushing teeth and shaving
  3. Don’t let water run while washing dishes, instead fill one sink with water and rinse with it.
  4. Place your plants in the spots where it can take in rain water. If soil is wet, you don’t need to water your plants. Also it is a good practice to collect water from your regular washing, rinsing and use it for your plants. If you have fish tank, this water is particularly useful for your plants, do not drain it away. Do not over water your plants
  5. Reduce utensil and Jeans usage, you can wear that Jeans twice or thrice before it needs cleaning. Drink from a bottle instead of a new glass every time.

So simple, isn’t it? Do those acts right now to show your awareness for people who can’t obtain clean water for their daily life. When you save water, you are saving earth. When you save water, you are saving energy and also your own money. This planet needs your awareness. I believe that small act can make a huge difference.

Good Luck! Do your best for the better future

Failures in Market Economies

Europe is a continent that currently experiencing a crisis. If the Eurozone crisis completely, and formed a new currency, there will be a serious threat, not only to international trade but also for economic growth and prosperity.

Examples of some countries in the euro zone such as Greece, Spain, Portugal, and Italy experienced a lot of economic problems, the prove that this situation getting worse is the increasing number of unemployment reached more than 25% and one of three young people in Spain can’t looking for a job. Reduction of government spending cuts coupled with tax increases have been enacted. However, the government still failed to ensure disciplined society to pay taxes. And it’s almost everywhere!

asri rezki putriningrum

In my opinion, it has become one of the factors that lead to market failure. Apparently a lot of international companies with big names such as in the UK only pay small payment ratio taxes, so it doesn’t match with the income that they had earn. Where the company is manipulating their data which still listed as a company with a lower tax payments. Whereas in reality, the company has been successful and has the name in various places. The condition is very profitable for company, where they get a lot of advantages but only pay a little tax.

Stephen C. R. Munday stated in his book entitled “Markets and Market Failure”, that the free market is the best way to provide economic efficiency in the economy, but when the free market does not provide the optimal allocation of resources, they failed. Reasons which could make those markets fail is the external factors, public goods, information failure issues, and the collapse of a perfectly competitive market. Examples of information failures, such discourses about market failures in the euro zone over the many companies or firms which are still recorded as companies with lower tax payments when they are successful and have a lot of profit, so their gain is not worth with the few taxes which they spend. Error data received by the government can be considered as an example of the failure of information.

Other comparative material is the book “In Government We Trust: Market Failure and the Delusions of Privatisation” by Warwick N. Funnell, Robert Jupe and Jane Andrew. They argued that market failures may occur from themselves, both individually and together, but it is unlikely that they will be able to remove the grip that the market is owned by the government. An example is an employer does not pay taxes, then the government asserts and requires employers to pay the appropriate provisions.

Conclusion:
I think one of the market failures in the Eurozone due to the lack of responsibility for the payment of the tax which would harm the country. The opinions expressed by Stephen C. R. Munday is not much different from the opinions expressed Warwick N. Funnell, and friends. They believe that the core of market failure is the lack of awareness of both individuals and companies to fulfill tax obligations. Besides that, lack of government oversight also be an important cause of market failure.

twitter_icon2.png.original  @asriRPN

instagramIcon_normal  asrirpn